Cistercians honour him as the founder of the order because of the widespread activity which he gave to the order.[13]. He then found Radulphe in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery.[21]. At the solicitation of William of St. Thierry, Bernard defended the order by publishing his Apology which was divided into two parts. He wrote at this time his sermons on the Song of Songs. [26], Bernard "noted centuries ago: the people who are their own spiritual directors have fools for disciples. [12] Bernard then denounced Abelard to the pope and cardinals of the Curia. There is not left one man to seven women, and everywhere there are widows to still-living husbands. He had a special devotion to the Virgin Mary, and he later wrote several works about the Queen of Heaven.[4]. At the conference held at Palermo, Bernard succeeded in convincing Roger of the rights of Innocent II. He then returned to Clairvaux. He was accused of being a monk who meddled with matters that did not concern him. To understand St Bernard’s importance to Cistercianism it is first necessary to study the Order in detail. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Whether an ‘intention’ to create an Order of the Templar sort existed prior to the life of St Bernard himself is a matter open to debate. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Bernard considered lectio divina and contemplation guided by the Holy Spirit the keys to nourishing Christian spirituality. At the Eucharist, he "admonished the Duke not to despise God as he did His servants". In 1830 Pope Pius VIII bestowed upon Bernard the title "Doctor of the Church". Bernard’s influence grew within the established Church of his day. What does seem evident is that Bernard was bright, inquisitive and probably tinged with a sort of genius. Only three years later St Bernard, still an extremely young man, (25 years) was dispatched, together with a small band of monks, to a site at Clairvaux, near Troyes, in Champagne, there to become Abbott of his own establishment. [24] Calvin also quotes him in setting forth his doctrine of a forensic alien righteousness, or as it is commonly called imputed righteousness. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. In the conclaveAnacletus IIwas elected by a narrow mnargin, but many influential cardinals favored the contender, Pope Innocent … Bernard found it expedient to dwell upon taking the cross as a potent means of gaining absolution for sin and attaining grace. The reputation of his holiness soon attracted 130 new monks, including his own father. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. In the year 1128 AD, Bernard participated in the Council of Troyes, which had been convoked by Pope Honorius II, and was presided over by Cardinal Matthew of Albano. You don't have to kneel or stand up to sing the. Bernard's "Prayer to the Shoulder Wound of Jesus" is often published in Catholic prayer books. Hasten to appease the anger of heaven, but no longer implore its goodness by vain complaints. He subsequently denounced the teachings of Peter Abelard to the pope, who called a council at Sens in 1141 to settle the matter. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Gerard of Clairvaux, Bernard's older brother, became the cellarer of Citeaux. Bernard of Clairvaux is the attributed author of poems often translated in English hymnals as: The modern critical edition is Sancti Bernardi opera (1957–1977), edited by Jean Leclercq.[33][d]. For whatever reason St Bernard wrote the first ‘rules’ of the Templar Order. Bernard praises it in his "De Laudibus Novae Militiae". ‘Believe me, for I know, you will find something far greater in the woods than in books. St. Bernard's Parish Hall. He was drawn into the controversy developing between the new monastic movement which he preeminently represented and the established Cluniac order, a branch of the Benedictines. From this point barely a decision was made in Rome that was not influenced in some way by St Bernard himself. Temporal matters are merely accessories; the principles according to Bernard's work were that piety and meditation were to precede action. Cardinal Harmeric, on behalf of the pope, wrote Bernard a sharp letter of remonstrance stating, "It is not fitting that noisy and troublesome frogs should come out of their marshes to trouble the Holy See and the cardinals."[4]. He decided in favour of Innocent II. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Henry of Lausanne, a former Cluniac monk, had adopted the teachings of the Petrobrusians, followers of Peter of Bruys and spread them in a modified form after Peter's death. This continued for the remainder of his life and may have demonstrated an inability on the part of his digestive system to cope with the severe diet enjoyed or rather endured by the Cistercians at the time. [4] These include: Burgundian saint, abbot and theologian (1090-1153). St Bernard was a younger member of an extremely large family. St Bernard’s influence on the Templars is therefore pivotal to the whole of the movement’s aims and objectives and in our opinion no researcher should ever underestimate Bernard’s importance with this regard. Bernard later commented that Gerard was his most formidable opponent during the whole schism. About the same time, Bernard was visited at Clairvaux by Malachy, Primate of All Ireland, and a very close friendship formed between them. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of earth and heaven. It is also true to say that if Citeaux remained the ‘head’ of the Cistercian movement during the life of St Bernard, Clairvaux lay at its heart. This letter made a positive impression on Harmeric, and in the Vatican. In our opinion past researchers have generally failed to credit St Bernard with the pivotal role he played in the planning, formation and promotion of the infant Templar Order. Cistercians, Burgundy, beekeepers, candlemakers, Gibraltar, Queens' College, Cambridge, Speyer Cathedral. During his youth, he did not escape trying temptations and around this time he thought of retiring from the world and living a life of solitude and prayer. Nevertheless, the monastery at Clairvaux flourished as more and more disciples sought to place themselves under the leadership of St. Bernard. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, or Clairvaux, on 25 June 1115, and the names of Bernard and Clairvaux soon became inseparable. He was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, and was canonized by Pope Alexander III on 18 January 1174. This he did, almost certainly, at the behest of Bernard and possibly as a result of promises he had made to this end at the time Bernard showed him the support which led to the Vatican. "[20], When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. [b] In 1137, he was again forced to leave his solitude by order of the pope to put an end to the quarrel between Lothair and Roger of Sicily. [16] His preaching, aided by his ascetic looks and simple attire, helped doom the new sects. [14], Having previously helped end the schism within the Church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. For this reason, the Black Monks attempted to make it appear that the rules of the new order were impracticable. Much can be found elsewhere in these pages relating specifically to the Cistercians. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 - 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians.. Bernard, informed of this by William of St-Thierry, is said to have held a meeting with Abelard intending to persuade him to amend his writings, during which Abelard repented and promised to do so. Malachy wanted to become a Cistercian, but the pope would not give his permission. Patronage. Innocent II, having been banished from Rome by Anacletus, took refuge in France. Bernard of Clairvaux may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. Bernard was born at his father's castle on the eminence of Les Fontaines, near Dijon, in Burgundy, in 1091. There is some dispute as to whether Bernard’s father had fought in the storming of Jerusalem in 1099, and indeed whether he died in the Levant. While […]. The regimen was so austere that Bernard became ill, and only the influence of his friend William of Champeaux and the authority of the general chapter could make him mitigate the austerities. With a mixture of simple, religious zeal and some extremely important family connections, this little man involved himself in the general running, not only of the Cistercian Order, but the Roman Church of his day. The bishops made Bernard secretary of the council, and charged him with drawing up the synodal statutes. This appointment should not be underestimated, for it was Pope Innocent II who formally accepted ‘The Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon’ (The Knights Templar) into the Catholic fold. From that moment a strong friendship sprang up between the abbot and the bishop, who was professor of theology at Notre Dame of Paris, and the founder of the Abbey of St. Victor, Paris. [12] Bernard lobbied the prelates on the evening before the debate, swaying many of them to his view. The Church of St. Bernard de Clairvaux. As in the olden scene, the cry "Deus vult! All Public Masses in the Archdiocese of Toronto Are Temporarily Cancelled. Tens of thousands heard his powerful preaching, and he personally attracted and helped many hundreds of men to follow a call to monastic life. Saint Bernard de Clairvaux a eu un esprit intéressé et intelligent, une attitude et une conduite pragmatiques, une âme de vrai chrétien, un coeur de combattant dans un corps délicat, d'ascète, habillé de la soutane blanche de la propreté spirituelle et matérielle. Read his meditations on prayer and God’s love. Bernard of Clairvaux was one of the most powerful figures of the twelfth century. Bernard had observed that when lectio divina was neglected monasticism suffered. There are many who believe that it was his championship of the Templars that made their survival possible. In June 1145, Bernard traveled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy. St Bernard staunchly supported what amounted to an utter veneration of the Virgin Mary for the whole of his life and was also an enthusiastic supporter of a rather strange little extract from the Old Testament, entitled ‘Solomon’s Song of Songs’. Bernard of Clairvaux, saint, abbot, and doctor, fills one of the most conspicuous positions in the history of the middle ages. [13] He was buried at the Clairvaux Abbey, but after its dissolution in 1792 by the French revolutionary government, his remains were transferred to Troyes Cathedral. All of these were attributed to Bernard after his canonisation and therefore must surely be taken with a pinch of salt. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent. The archbishop of Cologne and the archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks and asked Bernard to denounce them. The European importance of Bernard, however, began with the death of Honorius (1130) and the disputed election that followed. His success in this endeavour marked St Bernard as probably the most powerful man in Christendom, for as ‘Pope Maker’ he probably had more influence than the Pontiff himself. The influence of the Abbot of Clairvaux was soon felt in provincial affairs. Hasten then to expiate your sins by victories over the Infidels, and let the deliverance of the holy places be the reward of your repentance." Lothair II became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist(1090 – August 20, 1153) was a Frankish abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercianmonastic order. Many stories exist regarding Bernard’s early years – his visions, torments and realisations. Alert. He then went with him into Italy and reconciled Pisa with Genoa, and Milan with the pope. The Mission of St. John the Divine became the Church of St. Bernard de Clairvaux, named in honor of the great Saint who had been a leading influence among the Cistercians 847 years ago, and whose feast day is commemorated on August 20. After the council of Étampes, Bernard spoke with King Henry I of England, also known as Henry Beauclerc, about Henry I's reservations regarding Pope Innocent II. Principal penseur du courant cistercien, l'abbé Bernard de Clairvaux a largement influencé ses contemporains au XIIe siècle. Some of these, at the command of Innocent II, took possession of Tre Fontane Abbey, from which Eugene III was chosen in 1145. "[18], Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, answered Bernard and assured him of his great admiration and sincere friendship. St Bernard was a visionary, a man of apparently tremendous religious conviction. He traveled to Sicily in 1137 to convince the king of Sicily to follow Innocent. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 – 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians. born 1090, probably Fontaine-les-Dijon, near Dijon, Burgundy died Aug. 20, 1153, Clairvaux, Champagne; canonized Jan. 18, 1174; feast day August 20. St Bernard enters history in an indisputable sense at the age of 23 years, when together with a very large group of his brothers, cousins and maybe other kin, (probably between 25 and 30) he rode into the abbey of Citeaux, Dijon. Around this time, he praised them in his Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae. In May of that year, the pope, supported by the army of Lothair III, entered Rome, but Lothair III, feeling himself too weak to resist the partisans of Anacletus, retired beyond the Alps, and Innocent sought refuge in Pisa in September 1133. Abelard submitted without resistance, and he retired to Cluny to live under the protection of Peter the Venerable, where he died two years later. As in the First Crusade, the preaching led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Radulphe was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Radulphe claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. Clairvaux became the Mother House of many new Cistercian monasteries, not least of all Fountaines Abbey in Yorkshire, England, which itself was to rise to the rank of most prosperous abbey on English soil. He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henry Archbishop of Sens, and Stephen de Senlis, Bishop of Paris. Bernard had a great taste for literature and devoted himself for some time to poetry. Bernard's letter to the archbishop of Sens was seen as a real treatise, "De Officiis Episcoporum." The first abbot of Clairvaux developed a rich theology of sacred space and music, writing extensively on both. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the Second Crusade he had preached, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. Died Clairvaux, near Troyes, Champagne France August 20th 1153. Abelard sought a debate with Bernard, but Bernard initially declined, saying he did not feel matters of such importance should be settled by logical analyses. He hastened to terminate his worldly life and restore discipline in his monastery. Bernard was instrumental in the appointment of GREGORIO PAPARESCHI, Pope Innocent II in the year 1130, despite the fact that not all agencies supported the man for the Papal throne. Bernard's letters to William of St-Thierry also express his apprehension about confronting the preeminent logician. In brief however it would be fair to suggest that Bernard’s own personality, drive and influence saw the Cistercians growing from a slightly quirky fringe monastic institution to being arguably the most significant component of Christian monasticism that the Middle Ages ever knew. After his death a cult of St Bernard rapidly developed. This led for a time to the exaltation of human reason and rationalism. Malachy died at Clairvaux in 1148. It was this general chapter that gave definitive form to the constitutions of the order and the regulations of the Charter of Charity, which Pope Callixtus II confirmed on 23 December 1119. [4] William yielded and the schism ended. These cookies do not store any personal information. —Bernard of Clairvaux, quoted in The Crusades. [13] Bernard considered it his duty to send an apology to the Pope and it is inserted in the second part of his "Book of Considerations." These nine volumes offer an intriguing glimpse into the life and works of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, a twelfth-century Cistercian abbot and Doctor of the Church. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. [15] Henry of Lausanne's followers became known as Henricians. Bernard did not reject human philosophy which is genuine philosophy, which leads to God; he differentiates between different kinds of knowledge, the highest being theological. There Bernard preached an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. He also preached against Catharism. Certainly he was a fantastic organiser and possessed a charisma that few could deny. At his death, they numbered 343. A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae, representing the combined will of earth and heaven, https://books.google.com/books?id=kkoJAQAAIAAJ, List of Latin nicknames of the Middle Ages: Doctors in theology, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint archive, "Monuments historiques : Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard", "Sermon XIII: The Believers Concern, to pray for Faith", Audio on the life of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Database with all known medieval representations of Bernard, "Here Followeth the Life of St. Bernard, the Mellifluous Doctor", "Two Accounts of the Early Career of St. Bernard", Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Abbot, Doctor of the Church-1153, Lewis E 26 De consideratione (On Consideration) at OPenn, MS 484/11 Super cantica canticorum at OPenn, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernard_of_Clairvaux&oldid=996407825, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 12:18.

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